Glossary of Cancer Related Terms D - F

D

Drug resistance

The result of cells' ability to resist the effects of a specific drug.

Dysphagia

Difficulty in swallowing.

Dyspnea

Difficult or painful breathing; shortness of breath.

Dysuria

Difficult or painful urination.

E

Edema

The accumulation of fluid in part of the body.

Effusion

A collection of fluid in a body cavity, usually between two adjoining tissues. For example, a pleural effusion is the collection of fluid between two layers of the pleura (the lung's covering).

Electrocardiogram (EKG or ECG)

A test that takes recordings of the electrical activity of the heart.

Endoscopy

A procedure looking at the inside of body cavities, such as the esophagus (food pipe) or stomach.

Erythema

Redness of the skin.

Erythrocyte

The red blood cell that carries oxygen to body cells and carbon dioxide away from body cells.

Esophagitis

Inflammation of the esophagus (food pipe).

Estrogen

A female hormone produced primarily by the ovaries.

Estrogen receptor assay (ER assay)

A test that determines if breast cancer is stimulated by the hormone estrogen.

Excision

Surgical removal.

Extravasation

The leaking of intravenous fluids or medications into tissue surrounding the infusion site. Extravasation may cause tissue damage.

F

Fine-needle aspirate

A procedure in which a needle is inserted, under local anesthesia, to obtain a sample for the evaluation of suspicious tissue.

Fistula

An abnormal opening between two areas of the body.

Frozen section

A technique in which tissue is removed and then quick-frozen and examined under a microscope by a pathologist.

Source: National Institutes of Health and National Cancer Institute No implicit or explicit endorsement of any company is implied.