1. How many versions of the Ten Commandments are there?
The Bible actually contains two complete sets of the Ten Commandments (Exodus 20:2-17 and Deut. 5:6-21). In addition, Leviticus 19 contains a partial set of the Ten Commandments (see verses 3-4, 11-13, 15-16, 30, 32), and Exodus 34:10-26 is sometimes considered a ritual decalogue.
2. True or false — the Golden Rule is one of the Ten Commandments.
False. The so-called "Golden Rule" ("Do unto others as you would have them do unto you") doesn't appear in the Old Testament but in the New Testament (Matthew 7:12, Luke 6:31).
3. Does everyone enumerate the Ten Commandments the same way?
Actually several different traditions exist regarding how the commands should be enumerated. Jewish tradition considers verse 2 ("I am the Lord your God") to be the first commandment and verses 3-4 ("no gods before Me" and "no idols") as the second. Roman Catholic and Lutheran traditions consider verses 3-4 to be the first commandment but separate verse 17 ("don't covet your neighbor's house; don't covet your neighbor's wife") into two commandments. Protestant and Reformed traditions consider verse 2 a prologue and separate verses 3-4 into the first and second commandments, retaining verse 17 as one command.
4. What is significant about the way the Ten Commandments are arranged?
The commandments have a specific structure. The first four deal with one's relationship with God. The remaining commandments address one's relationship with humans. The two relationships are inseparable elements, fundamental to being a follower of God.
5. Which of the commands did Jesus consider the most important?